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An endotoxin and biologically active component of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall that is a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist with potential immunostimulatory activity. Upon internalization, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates TLR4 which in turn activates the NFkappaB pathway, in addition to mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathways. This leads to the release of proinflammatory cytokines and stimulates an innate immune response against vaccine antigens. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)