|Phase III||Treatment||Completed||1 to 21||NCI, Other||CDR0000064953|
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy use different ways to stop cancer cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. Combining more than one drug and giving the drugs in different combinations may kill more cancer cells.
PURPOSE: Randomized phase III trial to compare the effectiveness of standard combination chemotherapy treatment with more intensive combination chemotherapy in treating children with acute lymphocytic leukemia.
Further Study Information
OBJECTIVES: I. Compare the outcomes in children with higher risk acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) treated with postinduction chemotherapy based on marrow response on day 7 of induction therapy: for patients with rapid early response (M1/M2), standard vs intensified consolidation chemotherapy and standard vs prolonged duration of intensification chemotherapy; for patients with slow early response, addition of doxorubicin vs idarubicin and cyclophosphamide to intensification chemotherapy. II. Decrease the incidence of avascular necrosis by alternating dexamethasone dosing in patients undergoing 2 courses of delayed intensification. III. Assess the impact of day 7 marrow status on outcome in these patients. IV. Determine prognosis more precisely by supplementing presenting clinical features, immunophenotype, ploidy, cytogenetics, and early marrow response with BAX/BCL-2 ratios, pattern of tyrosine kinase activation, leukemic burden following induction and intensification therapy, and development of high antibody titer to E. coli asparaginase. V. Correlate the traditional prognostic factors of day 7 marrow response, immunophenotype, ploidy, cytogenetics, and early marrow response with BAX/BCL-2 ratios.
OUTLINE: This is a partially randomized, multicenter study. Patients are stratified by center. Patients receive one course of the VPLD regimen comprised of vincristine IV and daunorubicin IV over 15 minutes to 2 hours on days 0 and 7, oral prednisone daily on days 0-7, intrathecal cytarabine on day 0, and asparaginase or pegaspargase intramuscularly on days 3, 5, and 7. Patients are assigned to 1 of 2 two postinduction chemotherapy groups based on bone marrow response on day 7 of induction. Patients with M1/M2 marrow on day 7 are considered rapid early responders. Patients with M3 marrow on day 7 are considered slow early responders. Group 1: Rapid early responders Patients receive 2 additional courses of VPLD induction chemotherapy. Patients are then randomized to 1 of 4 treatment arms: Arm I: Beginning on day 35 of induction therapy, patients receive standard Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (BFM) regimen with standard delayed intensification. Standard BFM for patients in arm I consists of the following: consolidation over 5 weeks with cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, and mercaptopurine; interim maintenance over 8 weeks with oral methotrexate and mercaptopurine (MTX/MP); and delayed intensification over 7 weeks consisting of reinduction with vincristine, doxorubicin, oral dexamethasone, and asparaginase or pegaspargase followed by reconsolidation with cyclophosphamide, thioguanine, and cytarabine. Arm II: Patients receive standard BFM regimen with double delayed intensification. Patients receive therapy similar to those in arm I, but dexamethasone is interrupted for 1 week during delayed intensification and the intensification regimen is repeated, separated by an 8 week interim maintenance course of oral MTX/MP. Arm III: Patients receive augmented BFM regimen with standard delayed intensification. Patients receive 9 weeks of consolidation therapy with 2 courses of vincristine and pegaspargase alternating with the arm I consolidation therapy. Vincristine, intravenous methotrexate, and pegaspargase (the Capizzi I regimen) are substituted for oral MTX/MP in the interim maintenance regimen. Pegaspargase is substituted for asparaginase and two additional doses of vincristine are administered during delayed intensification. Arm IV: Patients receive augmented BFM regimen with double delayed intensification. Patients receive intensified chemotherapy throughout, combining the additional therapy given to patients in arms II and III. Patients receiving augmented BFM regimen receive pegaspargase instead of asparaginase. Patients with CNS disease at diagnosis are treated only on arm IV. Patients who are Philadelphia chromosome positive and do not have a bone marrow donor are nonrandomly assigned to the treatment group for slow early responders. All RER patients receive the same maintenance therapy with vincristine/prednisone and oral MTX/MP. Intrathecal methotrexate is administered periodically throughout protocol treatment. Group 2: Slow early responders Patients receive augmented BFM consolidation therapy and Capizzi I interim maintenance identical to that received by rapid early responders in arm IV. Patients are then randomized to receive double delayed intensification with either idarubicin or doxorubicin and concurrent cyclophosphamide. All patients receive the same maintenance therapy with vincristine/prednisone and oral MTX/MP. Intrathecal MTX is administered periodically throughout protocol treatment. Patients with CNS disease at entry receive craniospinal irradiation daily for 5 consecutive days beginning on day 0 of consolidation therapy. All slow early responders at diagnosis receive cranial irradiation daily for 5 consecutive days during consolidation therapy. Patients with testicular leukemia at diagnosis receive bilateral testicular irradiation daily for 5 consecutive days during consolidation chemotherapy. Groups 1 and 2: Maintenance therapy continues for 2 years for girls or 3 years for boys beyond completion of consolidation therapy. Patients are followed every 4-6 weeks for 1 year, every 3 months for 1 year, every 6 months for 2 years, and then annually thereafter.
PROJECTED ACCRUAL: Approximately 1,520 patients will be accrued for this study over 4 years.
DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS: Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) with M3 bone marrow No FAB L3 morphology CNS or overt testicular leukemia at diagnosis allowed High risk status 10-21 years old with any white blood count (WBC) 1-9 years old with WBC of 50,000/mm3 or greater
PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS: Age: 1 to 21 Performance status: Not specified Life expectancy: Not specified Hematopoietic: See Disease Characteristics Hepatic: Not specified Renal: Not specified
PRIOR CONCURRENT THERAPY: No prior therapy for ALL except: Emergency therapy for blast crisis, superior vena cava syndrome, or renal failure due to leukemic infiltration Biologic therapy: Not specified Chemotherapy: Intrathecal cytarabine or methotrexate allowed at diagnostic lumbar puncture Induction therapy must begin within 72 hours after intrathecal injection Endocrine therapy: At least 1-2 months since prior prednisone, for less than 48 hours, for reactive airway disease Inhalational steroids allowed Radiotherapy: Not specified Surgery: Not specified
Trial Lead Organizations/Sponsors
Children's Cancer GroupNational Cancer Institute
|Nita Louise Seibel||Study Chair|
Link to the current ClinicalTrials.gov record.
NLM Identifer NCT00002812
Information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov on November 20, 2012
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