Stage Information for Parathyroid Cancer
Because of the low incidence of parathyroid carcinoma, an American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system has not yet been formulated and thus is not applicable to this malignancy. In addition, neither tumor size nor lymph node status appear to be important prognostic markers for this malignancy.
Localized Parathyroid Cancer
Localized parathyroid cancer is disease that involves the parathyroid gland with or without invasion of adjacent tissues.
Metastatic Parathyroid Cancer
Metastatic parathyroid cancer is disease that spreads beyond the tissues adjacent to the involved parathyroid gland(s). Parathyroid carcinoma most frequently metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and lungs, and it may involve other distant sites, such as liver, bone, pleura, pericardium, and pancreas.References
- Hundahl SA, Fleming ID, Fremgen AM, et al.: Two hundred eighty-six cases of parathyroid carcinoma treated in the U.S. between 1985-1995: a National Cancer Data Base Report. The American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer and the American Cancer Society. Cancer 86 (3): 538-44, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Chow E, Tsang RW, Brierley JD, et al.: Parathyroid carcinoma--the Princess Margaret Hospital experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 41 (3): 569-72, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Busaidy NL, Jimenez C, Habra MA, et al.: Parathyroid carcinoma: a 22-year experience. Head Neck 26 (8): 716-26, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
- Shane E: Clinical review 122: Parathyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86 (2): 485-93, 2001. [PUBMED Abstract]