Cellular Classification of Bladder Cancer
More than 90% of bladder carcinomas are transitional cell carcinomas derived from the uroepithelium. About 6% to 8% are squamous cell carcinomas, and 2% are adenocarcinomas. Adenocarcinomas may be either of urachal origin or of nonurachal origin; the latter type is generally thought to arise from metaplasia of chronically irritated transitional epithelium. Pathologic grade, which is based on cellular atypia, nuclear abnormalities, and the number of mitotic figures is of great prognostic importance.References
- Mostofi FK, Davis CJ, Sesterhenn IA: Pathology of tumors of the urinary tract. In: Skinner DG, Lieskovsky G, eds.: Diagnosis and Management of Genitourinary Cancer. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders, 1988, pp 83-117.
- Wilson TG, Pritchett TR, Lieskovsky G, et al.: Primary adenocarcinoma of bladder. Urology 38 (3): 223-6, 1991. [PUBMED Abstract]