150 Years of Advances Against Cancer - 1980s
|1980||NCI scientist Robert Gallo and his colleagues isolate human T-cell lymphotrophic virus 1 (HTLV-1). This virus, also called adult T-cell leukemia virus, causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and several other diseases.|
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is developed. This technique allows researchers to use fluorescently labeled nucleic acid probes to study the chromosomal location and copy number of genes inside cells.
NCI researcher Mark Greene and his colleagues describe a new syndrome, dysplastic nevus syndrome, in melanoma-prone families. Later work will show that dysplastic nevi, which are moles that look different from common moles, are precursors not only of hereditary melanomas but also of melanomas that develop in people without a family history of the disease.
The prevalence of U.S. adult smoking declines to 33.2 percent.
|1981||The first human cancer prevention vaccine is introduced—the hepatitis B virus vaccine to prevent liver cancer.|
A randomized clinical trial in the United Kingdom shows, for the first time, that the rates of survival, local recurrence, and tumor metastasis among women whose breast cancer is treated with modified radical mastectomy are not substantially different from those of women who are treated with radical mastectomy.
|1982||The first major DNA sequence databases are established, in the United States (GenBank) and Germany.|
Scientists report the cloning of an oncogene from human bladder cancer cells. This oncogene, a mutated form of the proto-oncogene Ha-RAS1, is the first human oncogene to be cloned.
NCI's PDQ cancer information database goes online. The PDQ cancer treatment information summaries and clinical trials registry are made available through a dial-up connection to the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
|1983||Patrick Walsh and his colleagues introduce nerve-sparing retropubic prostatectomy, a form of prostate cancer surgery designed to preserve sexual potency and urinary continence.|
Computerized tomography of the colon (also known as virtual colonoscopy) is proposed as a screening method to identify colon polyps and colorectal cancer.
Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice are first described. These mice are deficient in B and T lymphocyte function. They will play an important role in cancer research.
NCI launches the Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP), which links community-based physicians with NCI’s Clinical Trials Cooperative Groups and NCI-designated Cancer Centers for participation in NCI-approved clinical trials. CCOP is designed to bring the advantages of clinical research to cancer patients in their own communities.
|1984||The human p53 gene is cloned.|
DNA from human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 is identified in a large percentage of cervical cancers, establishing a link between infection with these HPV types and cervical carcinogenesis.
The association of DNA polymorphisms (normal genetic variants) with cancer risk is first described. Some DNA polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of cancer, whereas others are associated with decreased risk.
|1985||Results of a randomized clinical trial show that breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) followed by external-beam radiation therapy is equivalent to mastectomy in treating early breast cancer.|
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique is introduced. This technique allows millions of copies of a segment of DNA to be made from a single original copy. PCR becomes an important tool in DNA analysis and cloning.
|1986||The human HER2 proto-oncogene is cloned. HER2 is also called neu and erbB2. Overexpression of the HER2 protein occurs in about 20 to 25 percent of breast cancers (called HER2-positive breast cancers) and is associated with more aggressive disease and poor prognosis.|
|1987||Stephen Friend, Robert Weinberg, and their colleagues report that they have cloned the human retinoblastoma (RB) gene, which is identified as a tumor suppressor gene.|
|1988||Results of a randomized clinical trial show that adjuvant chemotherapy increases the survival of patients with operable colon cancer.|
Results of the first randomized clinical trial comparing patient-controlled and continuous infusion of the opioid hydromorphone in the treatment of cancer pain are reported. The effectiveness and toxicity of the two methods of delivering cancer pain medication are found to be similar.
The Bethesda System Conference develops a system for the standard reporting of Pap test results.
|1989||Carboplatin, a drug related to cisplatin, is approved by the FDA for the treatment of cancer.|